The approach to tribal developments adopted so for may be classified under three heads. Priority was accorded to protective measures and dimension of exploitation in areas of land alienation, money lending, collection of forest produce and liqueur vending. Development of infrastructure has been the major area of investment particularly of the state share of the total outlays. Beneficiary oriented schemes (minor irrigation) have received little attention.
The tribal are dependent mainly on agriculture, forests and livestock. But the dwindling forest resources have jeopardized the agriculture and livestock productivity due to shrinking of water resources and poor fuel & fodder supply. The small, marginal, fragmented, unirrigated and mono crop agriculture holdings and low productive livestock population do not offer adequate opportunities for their livelihood. These factors, therefore, compel them for migration to nearby towns for subsistence, leaving their productive assets idle.
- To promote sustainable participatory livelihood programmes (“Wadi” model and “beyond Wadi approaches”) which inter alia, aim at economic uplift through sustainable agriculture, social empowerment, improvement in quality of life including health and women development, in tribal predominant areas of the country through demonstration projects supported through Non Government Organisations (NGOs)/ Community Based Organisations (CBOs) / GOs. The “Beyond Wadi approaches may include (a) livelihoods based on traditional arts and crafts or agro and forest based activities for illiterate or semi-literate groups, (b) projects harnessing the core competencies of the potential tribes, viz., organic cultivation; indigenous knowledge especially regarding medicinal plants and preparation of medicines; collection, extraction and usage of natural dyes; etc.
- To take up promotional efforts such as capacity building, exposure visits, training,developing literature, sensitization programmes etc. for the benefit of communities, NGOs, SHGs, Panchayats, Bankers and Government Departments.
- To implement sustainable livelihood programmes and similar other relevant initiatives through the state governments.
- To support promotional activities for micro-credit, promotion of SHGs, Income Generating Activities for land-less, SC / ST communities and other weaker sections of the community and other related activities in conjunction with the livelihood development programme.
- To support activities related to development of tribal market, processing and marketing of products manufactured by tribal families/ communities.
- To support other relevant activities as approved by NABARD.
- Shift in focus from farmer centric to family centric
- Project size of 500 to 1000 families covering approximately 500 - 1000 acre of orchard plantation in a 2-3 clusters
- Support for one acre per family
- Project duration of 5-7 years.
- The project funding is done on grant/ loan basis or blend of both as found appropriate. Generally, the project cost is met as a grant and it is ensured that the participants contribute at least 25% of the labour component. To inculcate good credit habits among the participants, a small loan component (around 10% of the project cost) is provided as loan to Project Implementing Agency (PIA) for on lending. The loan period and interest rate for on lending to the project participants would be decided at the time of sanction of the project.
|Orchard cultivation as the core component and complementary measures such as soil conservation, water resource development, inter crop, fencing and boundary plantations (forestry species). While the fruit plants generate income after 4-5 years, the forestry species provide a fence and also act as a shelter belt.|
|The species mix planted meets the families’ needs for fuel, fodder and small timbers. It also helps in reducing the pressure on existing forests. A one acre orchard accommodates around 60 fruit plants (depending on spacing) and 600-800 forestry plants and provides adequate income and livelihood security under climatic vagaries. In five years, a poor village of 100 families gets converted into an orchard of a 100-150 acre producing hundreds of tonnes of fruits.|